ALL ARTICLES FOR Artificial intelligence

Some say artificial intelligence (AI) will be the next big thing after the internet: a tool enabling new industries and improving the lives of ordinary people. Others think AI is the greatest threat to society as we know it. This article will try to explain why both parties are correct.

 

 

As humans, we have a visual system that allows us to see (extract and understand) shapes, colours and contours. So why do we see every image as a different image? How do we know, for example, that a box in an image is, in reality, a box? And how do we know what a plane is or what a bird is?

 

Increasing yields has been a key goal for farmers since the dawn of agriculture. People have continually looked for ways to maximise food production from the land available to them. Until recently, land management techniques such as the use of fertilisers have been the primary tool for achieving this.

 

Challenges for Farmers

 

Whilst these techniques give a much improved chance of an increased yield, problems beyond the control of farmers have an enormous impact:

 

  1. Parasites - “rogue” plants growing amongst the crops may hinder growth; animals may destroy mature plants
  2. Weather - drought will prevent crops from flourishing, whilst heavy rain or prolonged periods of cold can be devastating for an entire season
  3. Human error - ramblers may trample on crops inadvertently, or farm workers may make mistakes
  4. Chance - sometimes it’s just the luck of the draw!

 

AI techniques can be used to reduce the element of randomness in farming. Identification of crop condition and the classification of likely causes of poor plant condition would allow remedial action to be taken earlier in the life cycle. This can also help prevent similar circumstances arising the following season.

 

Computer Vision to the Rescue

 

Computer vision is the most appropriate candidate technology for such systems. Images or video streams taken from fields could be fed into computer vision pipelines in order to detect features of interest.

 

          

 

A key issue in the development of computer vision systems is the availability of data; a potentially large number of images are required to train models. Ideal image datasets are often not available for public use; this is certainly the case in an agricultural context. Nor is the acquisition of such data a trivial exercise. Sample data is required over the entire life cycle of the plants - it takes many months for the plants to grow, and given the potential variation in environmental conditions, it could take years to gather a suitable dataset.

 

How Synthetic Data Can Help

 

The use of synthetic data offers a solution to this problem. The replication of nature synthetically poses a significant problem: the element of randomness. No two plants develop in the same way. The speed of growth, age, number and dimensions of plant features, and external factors such as sunlight, wind and precipitation all have an impact on the plant’s appearance.

 

Plant development can be modelled by the creation of L-systems for specific plants. These mathematical models can be implemented in tools such as Houdini. The Digica team used this approach to create randomised models of wheat plants.

 

                    

 

The L-system we developed allowed many aspects of the wheat plants to be randomised, including height, stem segment length and leaf location and orientation. The effects of gravity were applied randomly and different textures were applied to modify plant colouration. The Houdini environment is scriptable using Python; this allows us to easily generate a very large number of synthetic wheat plants to allow the modelling of entire fields.

 

The synthetic data is now suitable for training computer vision models for the detection of healthy wheat, enabling applications such as:

 

  • filtering wheat from other plants
  • identifying damaged wheat
  • locating stunted and unhealthy wheat
  • calculation of biomass
  • assessing maturity of wheat

 

With the planet’s food needs projected to grow by 50% by 2050, radical solutions are required. AI systems will provide a solution to many of these problems; the use of synthetic data is fundamental to successful deployments.

 

Digica’s team includes experts in the generation and use of synthetic data; we have worked with it in a variety of applications since our inception 5 years ago. We never imagined that it could be used in such complex, rich environments as agriculture. It seems that there are no limits for the use of synthetic data in the Machine Learning process! 

 

Application of Computer Vision in the Industrial Sector

 

Inventory management is a key process for all industrial companies, but the inventory process is both time-consuming and error-prone. Mistakes can be very costly, and it is highly undesirable to store more raw materials or fully completed and ready-to-ship products than are required at any given time. On the other hand, any shortfall in elements that make up a product may leave customer orders unfulfilled on time.  In a warehouse which stores, for example, 10,000,000 items with an average value of $10, the loss of 0.1% of these items represents a cost of $100,000. The per annum cost of such a loss may run into millions of dollars. An automated object-counting system based on computer vision (CV) could speed up the process, reduce errors and lower costs.

 

Why is Inventory Management so complex?

 

There are many complexities to the art of inventory management, including the following factors:

  • Range - the variety of stock keeping units (SKUs) to be tracked
  • Accessibility - objects may be placed on high shelves in warehouses, out of reach and perhaps out of direct sight of workers
  • Human error - objects may be miscounted or misrecorded in tracking systems
  • Time management - taking an inventory of SKUs at the optimal frequency

 

These problems can be solved using an automated object counting system which is based on CV.  For such a system to be genuinely useful, it must display a high degree of accuracy. An appropriately designed and trained CV application can then significantly reduce the possibility of mistakes and the time taken to execute the process.

 

An Automated Object Counting System

 

Digica developed an object counting system based on CV that is both highly accurate and easily customisable. For example, the system is able to detect, classify and count objects by class when they are located on a pallet. The initial system was designed to count crates of bottles.

 

Example of detected crates when stacked on a pallet

 

A practical system deployed in a warehouse must be able to cope with a range of inconsistencies in the incoming data. It is unlikely that pallets are always placed in exactly the same locations or are always oriented in the same way. In the example above, all of the crates are detected in spite of the fact that the visible regions of the crates are not consistent. Crates are also recognised from both front and side views.

 

This system is clearly well suited for use with the CCTV systems which are typically installed in warehouse environments. However, the technology could be adapted to run on automated vehicles or drones, which are devices that often run an embedded operating system that is capable of running Machine Learning (ML) applications. This could lead to a fully automated inventory process in which humans are responsible only for controlling the work of the machines.

 

Note that this system does not need SKU-specific barcodes or QR codes, which simplifies the deployment of the system in existing warehouses. Therefore, existing processes do not require any modification, and it is not necessary to place objects so that any existing barcode is kept visible.

 

A Customisable System

 

This computer vision system is highly customisable. At its core is a pre-trained neural network which can be readily retrained to support a specific target environment. The possibilities are almost limitless! The system could  be used for purposes such as:

  • Detecting and counting small objects, such as screws or nails on a conveyor belt
  • Detecting boxes on pallets during packing for the purposes of quality control prior to shipping
  • Aggregating information about certain objects in large physical areas, such as shipping ports for example, by carrying out an inventory on shipping containers

 

Integration with a wider range of systems is also possible. As the system provides real-time inventory data, it is possible to automatically make orders for resources for which stocks are running low. Integration with other ML systems could allow predictive ordering to optimise prices. Sensor-fusion techniques can also be easily applied, by combining a CCTV signal with IR cameras for certain objects that present variable temperature spectra. Such a system makes it possible to monitor objects, such as batteries, which are at risk of overheating.

 

This system was trained using a combination of publicly-available and self-generated data. Whilst this works well in a demonstration environment, training on target environment data will give a higher level of accuracy. Such target environment data may not be available, but the problem lends itself well to the use of synthetic data for training purposes. Furthermore, such data can be easily integrated into the training pipeline.

 

The Digica team has completed a large range of projects which make use of computer vision.  With the advent of Industry 4.0, the time has come to give to industries that rely on Inventory Management the technology upgrade that they need to stay competitive!

 

Review of Yoshua Bengio’s lecture at the Artificial General Intelligence 2021 Conference

At the 2021 Artificial General Intelligence Conference, a star keynote speaker was Yoshua Bengio. He has been one of the leading figures of deep learning with neural networks, for which he was granted the Turing Award last year.

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